Can hearing become impaired by being exposed to an inaudible frequency at a very high volume?

For instance, if I were to play a tone of 30,000 hertz at a very high volume, would it cause any damage to my ears considering the fact that I can't hear it?
An ultra high frequency at a high intensity would not damage your hearing. The human ear changes subtle air vibrations (sound waves) into nerve transmissions through a multiple step process. The eardrum and the middle ear bones (ossicles) vibrate in response to these waves to transmit to the inner ear where the nerves are.
Now, the middle ear, like everything in the universe, has a resonant frequency, a frequency where the item vibrates the easiest. The eardrum/ossicles vibrate the easiest in the 1000Hz-3000Hz range. At 1000Hz, people can hear about 7dB SPL. at 16,000Hz, people don't hear the sound until it reaches 56dB SPL. Beyond the range of human hearing, the sound intensity would have to be incredibly loud just to set the eardrum/ossicles into motion at all, and even if you could set them into motion with this high frequency/high intensity sound, the vibration dampening of the fluid in the inner ear would make is so the hair cells are not stimulated/damaged at all.

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